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 'Piezoelectric Crystal' 
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Result : Searchterm 'Piezoelectric Crystal' found in 1 term [] and 10 definitions [], (+ 4 Boolean[] results)
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Piezoelectric CrystalMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
A piezoelectric crystal changes the physical dimensions when subjected to an electric field. When deformed by external pressure, an electric field is created across the crystal. Piezoelectric ceramic and crystals are used in ultrasound transducers to transmit and receive ultrasound waves.
The piezoelectric crystal in ultrasound transducers has electrodes attached to its front and back for the application and detection of electrical charges. The crystal consists of numerous dipoles, and in the normal state, the individual dipoles have an oblique orientation with no net surface charge.
In ultrasound physics, an electric field applied across the crystal will realign the dipoles and results in compression or expansion of the crystal, depending on the direction of the electric field. For the transmission of a short ultrasound pulse, a voltage spike of very short duration is applied, causing the crystal to initially contract and then vibrate for a short time with its resonant frequency.
See also Composite Array, Transducer Pulse Control, and Temporal Peak Intensity.
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 Further Reading:
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Physics Tutorial: Ultrasound PhysicsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.physics247.com    
Ultrasound in diagnostic and therapyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.anst.uu.se    
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Array TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
An array transducer is composed of multiple piezoelectric crystal elements arranged in an array. Arrays are transducer assemblies with a row of elements, used to focus the beam.

Types of array transducers:
point Linear array transducer = the arrays are arranged along a line.
point Curvilinear or curved transducer = the arrays are arranged along a convex curve. A curved array is similar to a linear array except that the image created is a sector-type.
point Annular array transducer = the arrays are arranged in concentric circles.
point Rectangular array transducer = the arrays are arranged in a rectangular pattern.
See also Amplitude Shading, Transducer Types, and Transducer Assembly.
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Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
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Ultrasound renal anatomyOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
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ElementMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
An ultrasound element is a single slab of piezoelectric crystal that is cut into a linear collection of separate pieces. The separate pieces are called elements. Each element is wired separately to the transducer and they are fired in groups that are coordinated by a microprocessor. The elements are electrically configured to control the direction and characteristics of the sound beam.
See also Subdicing.
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Near FieldMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The near field (also called Fresnel zone) is the proximal part of an ultrasound beam. The Fresnel zone is adjacent to the transducer surface and has a converging sound beam profile. A narrow beam shape is maintained in the near field owing to constructive and destructive interference patterns of sound wavelets emitted from the transducer crystal.
The length of the near field is equal to
r2/l = d2/4l
where r is the radius, l is the ultrasound wavelength in the medium of propagation and d the diameter of the piezoelectric crystal.
See also Beam Pattern, and Sonographic Features.
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Physics, instrumentation and basic technique.Open this link in a new window
   by dynamicultrasound.org    
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Ultrasonic Testing Using Phased ArraysOpen this link in a new window
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Piezoelectric EffectMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
Piezo means pressure, so piezoelectric means that pressure is generated when electrical energy is applied to a quartz crystal. When electrical energy is applied to the face of the crystal, the shape of the crystal changes as a function of the polarity of the applied electrical energy. As the crystal expands and contracts it produces compressions and rarefactions, and creates sound waves. When this material is struck by sound waves it creates electrical currents.
Thus, a piezoelectric crystal can produce a pulse of mechanical energy (pressure pulse) by electrically exciting the crystal (transmitter), and they can produce a pulse of electrical energy by mechanically exciting the crystal (receiver). This ultrasound physics principle is called the piezoelectric effect (pressure electricity), which was discovered by Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1880, and is used to generate ultrasound waves. Instead of quartz crystals, piezoelectric ceramics such as barium titanate or lead zirconate titanate are also used, which are crystalline materials with similar piezoelectric properties.
See also Temporal Peak Intensity.
Radiology-tip.comPhotoelectric Effect,  Air Kerma
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Radiology-tip.comRelaxation Effect
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Physics Tutorial: Ultrasound PhysicsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.physics247.com    
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