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 'Ultrasound Gel' 
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Ultrasound GelMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
An ultrasound (US) scanning gel has the same conductivity as the human body and is applied between the transducer and the skin surface. Air is a bad conductor of US, so this acoustic gel is used to conducts the sound beam and allows the ultrasound probe to pass smoothly over the skin.
The gel will be removed after the examination, and it will not stain skin or clothing. The basic dermatological requirement of a scanning gel is that it be free of skin irritants or sensitizers. In addition, effective preservatives with low incidence of skin reaction are required to prevent microbiological degradation of the gel. The broad range of patients imaged with ultrasound, from pregnant women and infants to the infirm or elderly dictates that the risk of skin reaction must be minimized.
The effect of small bubbles in the ultrasound couplant under the transducer is to disperse the ultrasound which results in clouding of the image. This effect is most clearly seen on anechoic regions of the image which becomes cloudy. Air bubbles, regardless of their size, degrade the performance of ultrasound in all medical applications including imaging, Lithotripsy and physical therapy.
There are some chemicals, including mineral oil, silicone oil, alcohol, surfactants, and fragrances that can degrade the acoustic lens, destroy bonding, or change the acoustic properties of the lens. The use of scanning gels or lotions in diagnostic ultrasound containing these chemicals should be avoided. In therapeutic ultrasound, ultrasound transmission gels and lotions commonly contain oils and other chemicals not intended for use with diagnostic imaging transducers.
See also Ultrasound Therapy and Ultrasound Physics.
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    • Ultrasound Imaging Procedures
    • Side Effect
    • Equipment Preparation
    • Acoustic Window
    • Probe Cleaning

 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Sonography Transmission Gel as Endorectal Contrast Agent for Tumor Visualization in Rectal CancerOpen this link in a new window
Monday, 14 January 2008   by www.ajronline.org    
US Resources  
UltraSound Training Courses - Probes Transducers - Education pool - History of UltraSound - Portable UltraSound - Endoscopic
 
Acoustic WindowMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The acoustic window or field is the area defined by the pathway of the ultrasound beam between the transducer and the acoustic reflector. The sound reflection to skin boundary should be minimized with an ultrasound gel where this gel acts as an acoustic window through which the image is seen.
Acoustic window refers also to the optimal placing of the transducers so that the areas of interest are clearly imaged.
See also Transforaminal Window, Transcranial Window, Transorbital Window and Transtemporal Window.
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Ultrasound renal anatomyOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
US Resources  
Pediatric - Breast - Modes - DICOM - Prenatal - Calculation
 
Endocavitary EchographyMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Endoscopic -
 
The usual applications of endocavitary echography (also called internal echography / endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)) are examinations of the pelvic organs through internally introduced probes, which give a more precise and correct image.
Transrectal ultrasound is a well established method for rectal or prostate carcinoma assessment.
A transvaginal echography uses a small transducer that is inserted directly into the vagina.
Used are high-frequency (10-12 MHz) for superficial organs, endocavitary echography, and intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasound. A sterile cover is slipped over the probe, which is then covered with lubricating ultrasound gel and placed in the cavitary (see Equipment Preparation).
See also Endoscopic Ultrasound, Prostate Ultrasound, Interventional Ultrasound, Transurethral Sonography, Vaginal Probe, Rectal Probe.
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Side EffectMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Safety -
 
Diagnostic ultrasound imaging has no known risks or long-term side effects. Discomfort to the patient is very rare if the sonogram is accurately performed by using appropriate frequencies and intensity ranges. However, the application of the ALARA principle is always recommended.
There are reports of low birth weight of babies after applying more than the recommended ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Women who think they might be pregnant should raise this issue with the doctor before undergoing an abdominal ultrasound, to avoid any harm to the fetus in the early stages of development.
Since ultrasound is energy, sensitive tissues like the reproductive organs could possibly sustain damage if vibrated to a high degree by too intense ultrasound waves. In diagnostic ultrasonic procedures, such damage would only result from improper use of the equipment.

Possible ultrasound bioeffects:
list_point Ultrasonic heating of tissues can be created by absorption of the ultrasound energy.
list_point Due to increasing of temperature, dissolved gases from microbubbles come out of the contrast solution.
The thermal effect is controlled by the displayed thermal index and the mechanical index indicates the risk of cavitation.
An ultrasound gel is applied to obtain better contact between the transducer and the skin. This has the consistency of thick mineral oil and is not associated with skin irritation or allergy.
Specific conditions for which ultrasound may be selected as a treatment may be attached with higher risks.
See also Ultrasound Imaging Procedures, Fetal Ultrasound and Obstetric and Gynecologic Ultrasound.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
International guidelines and regulations for the safe use of diagnostic ultrasound in medicine(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.radiologymalaysia.org    
  News & More:
Ultrasound: Weighing the Propaganda Against the FactsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.midwiferytoday.com    
Ultrasound Produces Less Unwanted EffectsOpen this link in a new window
2004   by www.annieappleseedproject.org    
US Resources  
Preferential Sites - Equipment and Parts - Doppler UltraSound - Universities - Used and Refurbished UltraSound Equipment - Societies
 
Ultrasound CouplantMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Ultrasound Gel -
 
An ultrasound couplant is a material that propagates acoustical waves. The couplant eliminates air from the interface and adapts the contours of the transducer to the skin. The used material is an ultrasound gel that mimics the acoustic characteristics of biological tissue.
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  News & More:
Types of ultrasound artifacts?Open this link in a new window
   by www.frca.co.uk    
US Resources  
Gynecology - Portals - Renal - Databases - Vascular - UltraSound Physics
 
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