The autocorrelation is a mathematical procedure used to quantify periodicity in a Doppler signal and forms the basis of most color Dopplervelocity estimators. The autocorrelation multiplies waveforms by successively time-shifted sections of itself.
Axial resolution is the minimum separation between two interfaces located in a direction parallel to the beam (objects above and below each other) so that they can be imaged as two different interfaces. The axial space resolution directly relates with the wave frequency, but higher frequencies have lower penetration into tissues.
The axial resolution is inversely proportional to the frequency of the transducer depending on the size of the patient. The higher the frequency the lower the axial resolution in large patients. This state results from the rapid absorption of the ultrasound energy with lower penetration. Lower frequencies are utilized to increase depth of penetration.
See also Damping.