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ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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ReductionMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Artifacts -
 
An image artifact is any image attribute, which is not present in the original imaged object. An image artifact is sometime the result of an improper operation of the imager, and in other times a consequence of natural processes or properties of the human body.
Artifacts in diagnostic ultrasound are a reflection or an echo, which appears on the display and represents the real anatomical structure not correctly. An artifact can be a false, multiple or misleading information introduced by the imaging system or by interaction of ultrasound with the adjacent tissue.

Artifacts in ultrasound can be classified as to their source like e.g.:
point physiologic (motion, different sound velocities, acoustical impedances of tissue);
point hardware (dimension of the ultrasound beam and the transducer array);
point imaging technique (B-mode, spectral Doppler, color Doppler, 3D ultrasound).
Image artifacts can occur in each medical ultrasound. Then an interpretation of the image is complicated and can eliminate the structural information of objects looking for.
See also Ultrasound Imaging Procedures.
Radiology-tip.comImage Quality
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Types of ultrasound artifacts?Open this link in a new window
   by www.frca.co.uk    
  News & More:
Ultrasonographic fata morganaOpen this link in a new window
2003   by ndt.oxfordjournals.org    
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Mirror ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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ReductionMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Artifacts -
 
The mirror artifact is similar to the reverberation artifact. Mirror image artifacts (mirroring) can occur if the acoustical impedances of the tissue is too much different and the ultrasound is reflected multiple times on tissue layers. The echo detected does not come from the shortest sound path, the sound is reflected off an angle to another interface so that like a real mirror, the artifact shows up as the virtual object.
An empyema or lung abscess can be simulated by a mirror image artifact of a hepatic cyst. This liver lesion can appear like a lesion within the lung because the wave is reflected off the diaphragm back into the liver. The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. The sound pulse hits the interfaces within the liver lesion and is reflected back to the diaphragm once again with an angle of reflection equal to the angle of incidence and then back to the transducer.
Also by a pelvic ultrasound scan the sound can be reflected off the rectal air at an angle so that the deep wall of an artifactual cyst represents the mirror image of the inferior and anterior walls of the bladder. Mirror image artifacts can cause other strange appearances such as invasion of a transitional cell carcinoma through the bladder wall.
Also called Cross Talk.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Ultrasound artifactsOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
  News & More:
Doppler Mirror Image Artifacts Mimicking Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Mechanical Bileaflet Mitral Valve ProsthesesOpen this link in a new window
   by ejechocard.oxfordjournals.org    
Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
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Aliasing ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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ReductionMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Artifacts -
 
Echoes of deep lying structures within the body do not always come from the latest emitted sound pulse and can produce an aliasing artifact. Aliasing lowers the frequency components when the pulse repetition frequency is less than 2 times the highest frequency of a Doppler signal. This artifact can be problematical at Spectral or Color Doppler examinations.
Aliasing of the data displayed in pulsed wave technology is utilized as a benefit in determining transitions from laminar to turbulent flow.
See also Ultrasound Imaging Modes.
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Run-time ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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Different sound velocities in tissue are causing run-time artifacts.
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Beam Width ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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ReductionMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Artifacts -
 
The dimension of the ultrasound beam and the transducer array are the origin of the beam width artifact or volume averaging artifact. When the ultrasound beam is wider than the diameter of the lesion being scanned, normal tissues which lie immediately adjacent to the lesion arc included within the beam width, and their echotexture is averaged in with that of the lesion.
Thus, what appears to be the echogenicity of the lesion is really that of the lesion plus the averaged normal tissues. Because of volume averaging, cystic lesions may falsely appear to be solid, and some subtle solid lesions may become impossible to distinguish from surrounding normal tissue and, therefore, not identified at all.
See also Ultrasound Picture and Vector Array Transducer.
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