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 'Bubble Rupture' 
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Bubble RuptureMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
Ultrasound at the microbubble resonance frequency can cause bubble rupture at high acoustic power (mechanical index (MI) greater than 0.5). The result is a transient high-amplitude, broadband signal containing all frequencies, not only the harmonics. It will create a strong signal in B-mode or a short-lasting multicolored, mosaic-like effect in color Doppler sonography.
Several terms for this typical signal have been used, e.g. induced or stimulated acoustic emission, loss of correlation imaging and sono-scintigraphy.
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Bubble DestructionMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
Bubble destruction describes the microbubble shell rupture by ultrasound pulses. The bubble destruction increases with increasing peak negative pressure and decreasing frequency. The mechanical index is an indicator for the effectiveness of microbubble destruction. Contrast enhanced ultrasound relies on bubble rupture to detect bubbles in small vessels.
See also Negative Bolus.
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Bubble Specific ImagingInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
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Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
Bubble specific imaging methods rely usually on non-linear imaging modes. These contrast imaging techniques are designed to suppress the echo from tissue in relation to that from a microbubble contrast agent.
Stimulated acoustic emission (SAE) and phase / pulse inversion imaging mode (PIM) are bubble specific modes, which can image the tissue specific phase.
In SAE mode bubble rupture is seen as a transient bright signal in B-mode and as a characteristic mosaic-like effect in velocity 2D color Doppler.
PIM are Doppler modes and detect non-linear echoes from microbubbles. In pulse inversion imaging modes the transducer bandwidth extends, resulting in improved spatial resolution and more contrast.
See also Contrast Pulse Sequencing, Microbubble Scanner Modification, Narrow Bandwidth, Contrast Medium, Dead Zone.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Combination of contrast with stress echocardiography: A practical guide to methods and interpretationOpen this link in a new window
2004   by www.cardiovascularultrasound.com    
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Induced Acoustic EmissionInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
(AE) Induced acoustic emission is an effect of ultrasound contrast agents, presenting the interaction between the agent and the incident ultrasound wave.
Microbubbles break down in high-amplitude diagnostic ultrasound energy. The bubble rupture produces a transient pressure wave, which results in a characteristic mosaic pattern from tissues containing the agent. It is important to note that the color patterns of induced acoustic emission do not represent flow signals.
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Sonazoid™InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
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Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
Sonazoid™ is an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) consisting of stabilized gas microbubbles in an aqueous suspension. Sonazoid™ has overcome the stability problems of first generation USCA and can produce myocardial perfusion images. Myocardial imaging using ultrasound contrast agents provides diagnosis of chronic heart disease and assessment of the coronary arteries and of the coronary blood flow reserve.
Sonazoid™ is taken up by healthy Kupffer cells in the liver and spleen, but break down in high amplitude ultrasound imaging modes such as color Doppler imaging. The bubble rupture produces a transient pressure wave, which results in a characteristic mosaic color pattern from tissues containing the microbubbles (induced acoustic emission). Liver tumors without Kupffer cells will not display the mosaic pattern and can therefore be identified easily.

Drug Information and Specification:
RESEARCH NAME NC100100
DEVELOPER Amersham Health
INDICATION -
DEVELOPMENT STAGE
Development in USA and EU suspended
APPLICATION -
TYPE Microbubble
SHELL Lipid Stabilized (not disclosed)
CHARGE Negative
GAS Perfluorobutane
MICROBUBBLE SIZE -
PRESENTATION -
STORAGE -
PREPARATION Reconstitute with 2mL water
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

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