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 'Bubble Destruction' 
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Bubble DestructionMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
Bubble destruction describes the microbubble shell rupture by ultrasound pulses. The bubble destruction increases with increasing peak negative pressure and decreasing frequency. The mechanical index is an indicator for the effectiveness of microbubble destruction. Contrast enhanced ultrasound relies on bubble rupture to detect bubbles in small vessels.
See also Negative Bolus.
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Coherent Contrast ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
(CCI) A major limitation of the use of ultrasound contrast agents is the problem that signals from the microbubbles are mixed with those from tissue, so that the distribution of the microbubbles is not optimally displayed either in Doppler or gray scale.
Coherent contrast imaging is a high frame rate implementation of inverting the phase of alternate sound pulses and summing the resulting echoes. The symmetrical signals from linear reflectors are cancelled leaving those from non-linear scatterers, with the advantage that the cancellation is performed without the need to transmit two pulses per image line so that bubble destruction is minimized. Coherent contrast imaging yields best results in the vascular phase of phospholipid microbubbles (such as Definity and SonoVue).
See also Coherence.
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Contrast Enhanced Doppler ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Doppler UltraSound -
 
Contrast agents improve the sensitivity of vascular Doppler ultrasound, for example in cerebrovascular sonography or examinations of deep abdominal vessels. They also enlarge the role of transcranial Doppler. Microbubbles can be used with various modes e.g., color and power Doppler imaging, as well as pulsed-wave Doppler to increase the signal intensity. However, the ultrasound system must be suitable for contrast enhanced technology.
Microbubbles usually stay within the vascular space; nevertheless, the contrast enhancement is limited to 2–6 minutes caused by physiologic clearance and bubble destruction.
Depended on the application, contrast agents can be administered with a different injection rate e.g., bolus injection, slow injection, or continuous infusion. Stable, homogeneous, and prolonged enhancement can be obtained with perfusion, lasting until the infusion is stopped.
See also Cerebrovascular Ultrasonography, Multiple Frame Trigger.
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 Further Reading:
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Continuous Infusion Versus Bolus Injection Of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in Vascular Doppler Flow Imaging Response(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
Friday, 1 September 2000   by stroke.ahajournals.org    
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Carotid artery color doppler ultrasound: 80-90% stenosis of the proximal internal carotid artery secondary to large atherosclerotic plaquesOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
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FocusMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
In contrast enhanced ultrasound, the focus is the point at which maximum bubble destruction occur.
The transmit focus is the region on the axis of an ultrasound beam where the width of the beam has a minimum value. All waves crossing the focus are in phase in relation to the transducer surface or to the electronic summing point of an electronically focused array.
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 Further Reading:
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Basic ultrasound for cliniciansOpen this link in a new window
March 2006   by folk.ntnu.no    
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Ultrasonic Testing Using Phased ArraysOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ndt.net    
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Injection RateMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Quality Advice -
 
Ultrasound contrast agents (USCAs) improve the sensitivity of various ultrasound applications. They usually stay within the vascular space and can be injected several times. Nevertheless the contrast enhancement is limited caused by physiologic clearance and bubble destruction.

Different injection techniques to improve the imaging:
point Bolus injection generally results in a more or less prolonged blooming phase and a relatively short enhancing period of approximately 2- to 3 minutes.
point Slow injection provides markedly prolonged enhancement by minimizing over-contrast artifacts.
point Continuous perfusion achieves stable and uniform enhancement, lasting until the infusion is stopped.
Continuous infusion yield a steady-state concentration of the USCAs, greater examination time with optimal enhancement, avoid bloom and possibly other artifacts. Continuous infusion also allows the sonographer to optimize the effective dose individually during the examination.
See also Power Modulation.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Continuous Infusion Versus Bolus Injection Of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in Vascular Doppler Flow ImagingOpen this link in a new window
2000   by stroke.ahajournals.org    
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