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 'Correlation' 
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CorrelationMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Calculation -
 
Correlation is a mathematical procedure, used in ultrasound to quantify the similarity between two signals. Cross correlation of successive ultrasound echoes can be used to quantify movement of tissue, including blood.
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AutocorrelationMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Calculation -
 
The autocorrelation is a mathematical procedure used to quantify periodicity in a Doppler signal and forms the basis of most color Doppler velocity estimators. The autocorrelation multiplies waveforms by successively time-shifted sections of itself.
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US Resources  
Vascular - Image Quality - Used and Refurbished UltraSound Equipment - PACS - Prenatal - Universities
 
Bubble RuptureMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
Ultrasound at the microbubble resonance frequency can cause bubble rupture at high acoustic power (mechanical index (MI) greater than 0.5). The result is a transient high-amplitude, broadband signal containing all frequencies, not only the harmonics. It will create a strong signal in B-mode or a short-lasting multicolored, mosaic-like effect in color Doppler sonography.
Several terms for this typical signal have been used, e.g. induced or stimulated acoustic emission, loss of correlation imaging and sono-scintigraphy.
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CARDIOsphereŽInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
From POINT Biomedical Corp
CARDIOsphereŽ is an ultrasound contrast agent for assessment of myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease composed of highly echogenic bispheres.
PB127 is a new developed microbubble with a bilayer polymer/albumin shell filled with nitrogen gas that has ideal characteristics for power harmonic Doppler. They can be destroyed by high power ultrasound, and spectral decorrelation between ultrasound pulses is maximized by rapid dissolution of the released nitrogen gas.
POINT Biomedical Corp. announced (March 01, 2004) that it has completed two Phase 3 trials of CARDIOsphereŽ. The Phase 3 trials were designed to evaluate the performance of CARDIOsphereŽ imaging relative to radionuclide imaging for detecting obstructive coronary artery disease and identifying the anatomic location of perfusion defects.

Drug Information and Specification:
RESEARCH NAME PB 127
DEVELOPER Point Biomedical Corp.
INDICATION -
DEVELOPMENT STAGE
Myocardial perfusion -
Phase 3 completed
APPLICATION Infusion
TYPE Microbubble
SHELL Polylactide/Albumin
CHARGE Slight Negative
GAS Nitrogen
PREPARATION Reconstitute with 2ml H2O per vial and dilute with 150 ml DSW
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

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Color DopplerInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Doppler UltraSound -
 
(CD) Color Doppler is an ultrasound imaging mode, which visualizes the presence, direction and velocity of flowing blood in a wide range of flow conditions. It provides an estimate of the mean velocity of flow within a vessel by color coding the flow and displaying it superimposed on the 2D gray scale image. The flow direction is arbitrarily assigned the color red or blue, indicating flow toward or away from the transducer.
Color (colour, Brit.) Doppler ultrasound is capable of evaluating a wider area than other Doppler modes than for example Duplex or power Doppler, and therefore makes it less likely to miss flow abnormalities. It is also easier to interpret. Color flow is not as precise as conventional Doppler and is best used to scan a larger area and then use conventional Doppler for detailed analysis at a site of potential flow abnormality.

Adjustments for color Doppler in case of too much color:
point decreased color gain;
point increased color velocity scale;
point evaluation of chosen filter.

Adjustments for color Doppler in case of not enough color:
point increased color gain;
point decrease color velocity scale;
point adjust scanning plane and angle to flow;
point decrease sample box size;
point evaluation of chosen filter.
See also Color Power Doppler, Autocorrelation, Color Priority, Triplex Exam and Color Saturation.
Radiology-tip.comCerebral Blood Pool Imaging
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Radiology-tip.comBlood Flow Imaging,  Flow Effects
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Doppler ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ob-ultrasound.net    
  News & More:
Mesenteric Ischemia: ImagingOpen this link in a new window
   by emedicine.medscape.com    
Placental insufficiency and fetal heart: Doppler ultrasonographic and biochemical markers of fetal cardiac dysfunctionOpen this link in a new window
   by herkules.oulu.fi    
US Resources  
Modes - Breast - Developers - Artifacts - History of UltraSound - Hospitals
 
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