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 'Curved Transducer' 
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Curved TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
A curved or curvilinear array transducer is similar to a linear array except that the image created has a sector-type format. A curvilinear array gives a large footprint and near field with a wide sector. Usually, curved transducers are described by the radius of curvature in mm. The transducer elements control the characteristics and direction of the sound beam.
Curvilinear transducers have a wider field of view from the transducer face. Sector scanners are most useful for cardiac ultrasound examinations where the beam is directed between the ribs to image the heart.
Also called convex transducer.
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• Related Searches:
    • Transducer Types
    • Transducer Pulse Control
    • Piezoelectric Crystal
    • Vector Array Transducer

 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
US Resources  
Non-English - Online Books - Portals - Vascular - Equipment and Parts - Breast
 
Acoustic LensMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The acoustic lens is placed at the time the transducer is manufactured and cannot be changed. The acoustic lens is generally focused in the mid field rather than the near or far fields. The exact focal length varies with transducer frequency, but is generally in the range of 4-6 cm for a 5 MHz curved linear probe and 7-9 cm for a 3.5 MHz curved transducer.
Placing the elevation plane (z-plane) focal zone of the acoustic lens in the very near or far field would improve the beam width at precisely those depths. However, this would degrade the beam width to a much greater and unacceptable degree at all other depths.
There are some chemicals in ultrasound couplants that can degrade the acoustic lens, destroy bonding, or change the acoustic properties of the lens. Problematic chemicals include mineral oil, silicone oil, alcohol, surfactants, and fragrances. Fragrance can affect the transducer's acoustic lens or face material by absorption over time into elastomer and plastic materials, thus changing the material's weight, size, density, and acoustic impedance. Surfactants can degrade the bond between the lens and the piezoelectric elements and contribute to the accelerated degeneration of the lens.
See also Retrolenticular Afterglow.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
INTRODUCTIONOpen this link in a new window
   by www.fink.com    
  News & More:
Sound-field modification with acoustic lenses for high-intensity focused ultrasound therapyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
US Resources  
Endoscopic - Rental - DICOM - Obstetric - Ultrasound Therapy - Gynecology
 
Array TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
An array transducer is composed of multiple piezoelectric crystal elements arranged in an array. Arrays are transducer assemblies with a row of elements, used to focus the beam.

Types of array transducers:
point Linear array transducer = the arrays are arranged along a line.
point Curvilinear or curved transducer = the arrays are arranged along a convex curve. A curved array is similar to a linear array except that the image created is a sector-type.
point Annular array transducer = the arrays are arranged in concentric circles.
point Rectangular array transducer = the arrays are arranged in a rectangular pattern.
See also Amplitude Shading, Transducer Types, and Transducer Assembly.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
  News & More:
Ultrasound renal anatomyOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
Searchterm 'Curved Transducer' was also found in the following service: 
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Convex TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
Convex transducers are today standard on every new scanner. A convex surface allows the scanning of a larger area with a smaller array. The method of focusing and beam sweeping of a convex or curvilinear / curved array is similar to a linear array transducer, except of the shape of the probe and the sector format of the created image.
The better fit to the body, caused by the curved shape with smaller convex contact surface, and the wider field of view further from the transducer face are advantages in abdominal ultrasound.
However, also a convex array is often too large to image the heart when probing between the ribs. Caused by combining a large field of view with smallest array size, phased array transducers are the best choice in cardiac ultrasound.
See also Curved Transducer.
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Ultrasound renal anatomyOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
US Resources  
Used and Refurbished UltraSound Equipment - 4d UltraSound - Safety - Ultrasound Guided Interventions - Service and Repair - Carotid
 
Stress EchocardiogramMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Cardiac -
 
Stress echocardiograms are used for detection of coronary artery disease, or to determine the cardiac performance. Stress echocardiograms are less performed to evaluate pulmonary artery pressures, pulmonary hypertension or the significance of valvular heart disease.
Stress increases the degree to which the heart contracts. After a myocardial infarction there will be a region of the heart muscle that contracts abnormal at rest. This area may worsen with stress. A coronary artery blockage most often do not impairs the function of the heart at rest. With stress, a region of the heart does not receive enough blood to work effectively and wall motion abnormalities occur. The echocardiographer compares rest and exercise and can determine the presence and severity of a coronary artery blockage.

Stress echocardiograms involve:
list_point bicycle stress echocardiography;
list_point dobutamine stress echocardiography;
list_point transthoracic echocardiography.
A bicycle stress echocardiogram involves transthoracic echocardiography performed at the rest baseline and after or during different stages of physical exercise.
A dobutamine stress echocardiography uses the drug dobutamine instead physical exercise.
Transthoracic echocardiograms are routinely performed during stress and rest.
Cardiovascular stress represents a minimal risk to the patient.
See also Transesophageal Echocardiography, Echocardiography, M-Mode, Curved Transducer, Doppler Ultrasound, History of Ultrasound and History of Ultrasound Contrast Agents.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Contrast Stress EchocardiographyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.circ.ahajournals.org    
  News & More:
Non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease by quantitative stress echocardiography: optimal diagnostic models using off-line tissue Doppler in the MYDISE study(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org    
US Resources  
Journals - UltraSound Training Courses - Manufacturers - Calculation - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Schools - Preferential Sites
 
Related Searches:
 • Transducer Types
 • Transducer Pulse Control
 • Piezoelectric Crystal
 • Rectangular Array Transducer
 • Real-Time Transducer
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