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 'Depth' 
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DepthMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
To calculate the echo position, a constant sound speed of 1538.5 m/sec is assumed. Tissue penetration is frequency depended, if the frequency increases, the imaging depth decreases. The range resolution defines the depth. Ultrasound propagating in tissue is attenuated due to scattering and absorption. The attenuation is proportional to depth and frequency and is typically in the range from 0.5 to 1 dB/(MHz cm).
See also Attenuation Coefficient, Proximity Sensor, and Echo Ranging.
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Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
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Radiology  (5) Open this link in a new windowMRI  (7) Open this link in a new window
2D-ModeInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
The 2D-mode (2-Dimensional-mode) is a spatially oriented B-mode (brightness) ultrasound. The imaged structures are displayed 2 dimensional as a function of depth and width. The brightness level is based on the echo signal amplitude.
Most of the ultrasound devices in medical imaging are 2D real-time scanner. The image is created by a rapidly back and forth swept sound beam over the region of interest.
See also Gray Scale.
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  Basics:
Basic ultrasound for cliniciansOpen this link in a new window
March 2006   by folk.ntnu.no    
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Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
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4B-ModeMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
A four dimensional B-mode ultrasound means length, width, and depth over time so that a moving three-dimensional image is seen on the monitor.
See 4D Ultrasound.
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4D UltrasoundInfoSheet: - Modes - 
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As far as ultrasound is concerned, 4D ultrasound (also referred to as live 3D ultrasound or 4B-mode) is the latest ultrasound technology - the fourth dimension means length, width, and depth over time. 4D Ultrasound takes 3D ultrasound images and adds the element of time to the progress so that a moving three-dimensional image is seen on the monitor. A 4D scan takes the same amounts of time as a 2D or 3D scan; the difference is the ultrasound equipment being used. One advantage of a 4D fetal ultrasound to a 2D-mode is that parents can see how their baby will generally look like. However, there are different opinions over the medical advantages.
To scan a 3D ultrasound image, the probe is swept over the maternal abdomen. A computer takes multiple images and renders the 3D picture. With 4D imaging, the computer takes the images as multiple pictures while the probe is hold still and a 3D image is simultaneously rendered in real time on a monitor.
In most cases, the standard 2D ultrasound is taken, and then the 3D/4D scan capability is added if an abnormality is detected or suspected. The 3D/4D sonogram is then focused on a specific area, to provide the details needed to assess and diagnose a suspected problem. A quick 4D scan of the face of the fetus may be performed at the end of a routine exam, providing the parents with a photo.
Radiology-tip.comFluoroscopy
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Impulse Imaging 4D Imaging : 4D Ultrasound, 4D Radar, 4D Sonar, ... Real Time 3D Imaging using Ellipsoidal BackprojectionOpen this link in a new window
2001   by www.impulseimaging.net    
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Ultrasound: Weighing the Propaganda Against the FactsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.midwiferytoday.com    
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A-ModeInfoSheet: - Modes - 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
A-mode (Amplitude-mode) ultrasound is used to judge the depth of an organ, or otherwise assess an organ's dimensions. A-mode technology has been used in midline echoencephalography for rapid screening of intracranial mass lesions and ophthalmologic scanning. A-mode ultrasound imaging is now obsolete in medical imaging. The A-mode scan had also been used for early pregnancy assessment (detection of fetal heart beat), cephalometry and placental localization.
When the ultrasound beam encounters an anatomic boundary, the received sound impulse is processed to appear as a vertical reflection of a point. On the display, it looks like spikes of different heights (the amplitude). The intensity of the returning impulse determined the height of the vertical reflection and the time it took for the impulse to make the round trip would determine the space between verticals. The distance between these spikes can be measured accurately by dividing the speed of sound in tissue (1540 m/sec) by half the sound travel time.
To make an echoencephalography scan, the first A-mode scan is obtained from the right side of the head and the image captured on film. Then the probe is placed at the corresponding point on the left side. The second exposure is made on the same film with inverted spikes. The A-mode ultrasound could be used to identify structures normally located in the midline of the brain such as the third ventricle and falx cerebri. The midline structures would be aligned in normal patients but show displacement in patients with mass lesion such as a subdural, epidural, or intracranial hemorrhage.
See also Ultrasound Biomicroscopy, A-scan, B-mode and the Infosheet about ultrasound modes.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
A-Mode EchoencephalographyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.obgyn.net    
A-Mode Area RatioOpen this link in a new window
   by www.wildultrasound.com    
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Module 1: Basic A-scan Biometry Section 1: Basic ConceptsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.eyetec.net    
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