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 'Echography' 
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EchographyMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Resources pool -
 
Echography (also called sonography) allows visualizing deep structures of the body by recording the reflections (echo) of ultrasound waves directed into the tissues. A medical diagnostic sonogram (echogram), as in echocardiography and echoencephalography, utilizes a frequency range of 1 to 10 MHz.
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    • Ultrasonography
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Ultrasound in diagnostic and therapyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.anst.uu.se    
US Resources  
3d UltraSound - Societies - Patient Information - Service and Repair - Used and Refurbished UltraSound Equipment - Universities
 
Endocavitary EchographyMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Endoscopic -
 
The usual applications of endocavitary echography (also called internal echography / endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)) are examinations of the pelvic organs through internally introduced probes, which give a more precise and correct image.
Transrectal ultrasound is a well established method for rectal or prostate carcinoma assessment.
A transvaginal echography uses a small transducer that is inserted directly into the vagina.
Used are high-frequency (10-12 MHz) for superficial organs, endocavitary echography, and intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasound. A sterile cover is slipped over the probe, which is then covered with lubricating ultrasound gel and placed in the cavitary (see Equipment Preparation).
See also Endoscopic Ultrasound, Prostate Ultrasound, Interventional Ultrasound, Transurethral Sonography, Vaginal Probe, Rectal Probe.
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US Resources  
Ultrasound Guided Interventions - Liver - Pelvic - Image Quality - Contrast Agents - Gynecology
 
Abdominal UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Abdominal -
 
(AUS) Abdominal ultrasound, (TAE) transabdominal echography, abdomen sonography, sonogram, (FAST) focused assessment
Ultrasonography is an ideal clinical tool for determining the source of abdominal pain. An abdominal ultrasound includes the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, pancreas, spleen, kidneys and blood vessels of the abdomen. Conventional ultrasound is cheap, safe, non-invasive and is a practical first line investigation. High resolution ultrasound, endoscopic ultrasound and contrast enhanced Doppler techniques assist in detecting small lesions. The best preparation is nothing to eat or drink from midnight the night before the exam (minimum 8 hours).

Indications:
point abdominal pain;
point stones in the gallbladder or kidneys;
point inflammation;
point cancer, metastasis.

FAST is a rapid diagnostic test of the trauma patient that sequentially detects the presence of free fluid in pericardium (hemopericardium) and in 4 views of the abdomen. These views, the right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), the subcostal, and suprapubic views detect a hemoperitoneum in patients with potential truncal injuries. The Morison pouch between the liver and right kidney (RUQ) is a space in which intraperitoneal fluid can accumulate. Emergency abdominal ultrasonography is indicated for the evaluation of aortic aneurysm, appendicitis, and biliary and renal colic, as well as blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma.
See also Pelvic Ultrasound, Pregnancy Ultrasound, Prostate Ultrasound and Pediatric Ultrasound.
Radiology-tip.comAbdomen CT
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Radiology-tip.comAbdominal Imaging
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• View the news results for 'Abdominal Ultrasound' (1).



 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Starting Abdominal UltrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by myweb.lsbu.ac.uk    
Bedside Limited Echocardiography by the Emergency Physician Is Accurate During Evaluation of the Critically Ill PatientOpen this link in a new window
2004   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
Normal Anatomy of the Abdomen - UltrasoundsOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
  News & More:
Optimizing Doppler and Color Flow US: Application to Hepatic Sonography(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by radiographics.rsna.org    
Renal Transplant Imaging and Intervention: Practical Aspects - 2Open this link in a new window
Tuesday, 11 August 1998   by www.radiology.co.uk    
Acute Appendicitis Diagnosed by UltrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
Cirrhosis, Ultrasound findingsOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
Searchterm 'Echography' was also found in the following service: 
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B-ModeInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
Also called B-mode echography, B-mode sonography, 2D-mode, and sonogram.
B-mode ultrasound (Brightness-mode) is the display of a 2D-map of B-mode data, currently the most common form of ultrasound imaging.
The development from A-mode to B-mode is that the ultrasound signal is used to produce various points whose brightness depends on the amplitude instead of the spiking vertical movements in the A-mode. Sweeping a narrow ultrasound beam through the area being examined while transmitting pulses and detecting echoes along closely spaced scan lines produces B-scan images. The vertical position of each bright dot is determined by the time delay from pulse transmission to return of the echo, and the horizontal position by the location of the receiving transducer element.
To generate a rapid series of individual 2D images that show motion, the ultrasound beam is swept repeatedly. The returning sound pulses in B-mode have different shades of darkness depending on their intensities. The varying shades of gray reflect variations in the texture of internal organs. This form of display (solid areas appear white and fluid areas appear black) is also called gray scale.

Different types of displayed B-mode images are:
point two-dimensional, 2D-mode;
point gray scale;
point real-time mode;
point compound B-mode.

The probe movement can be performed manual (compound and static B-scanner) or automatic (real-time scanner).
The image reconstruction can be parallel or sector type.
See also B-Scan, 4B-Mode, and Harmonic B-Mode Imaging.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
  News & More:
Ultrasound anatomy of the neckOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
US Resources  
Heart - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Jobs - RIS - Ultrasound Therapy - Databases - Resources
 
Endoscopic UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Endoscopic -
 
(EUS) Endoscopic ultrasound uses a small probe that is inserted in the rectum either through a proctoscope or by itself. During the test biopsies of any suspicious areas are possible. The usual necessary preparation is an enema to empty the rectum. Endoscopic ultrasound provides additional information about rectal polyps, rectal cancer, perianal infection, and sphincter muscle injuries and improves the selection of patients for local excision.
Transrectal echography using a high-frequency transducer is a well established method for preoperative rectal carcinoma assessment.
Endoscopic scanning is limited by the ultrasound physics (depth and axial resolution) of the endocavitary probe. Therefore, the combination of endoscopic and transcutaneous ultrasound is most favorable.
Radiology-tip.comComputed Tomography Enterography
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Radiology-tip.comGastrointestinal Imaging
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• View the news results for 'Endoscopic Ultrasound' (2).



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