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Field of ViewMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
(FOV) The field of view is the plane or area depicted by the ultrasound transducer.
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Convex TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
Convex transducers are today standard on every new scanner. A convex surface allows the scanning of a larger area with a smaller array. The method of focusing and beam sweeping of a convex or curvilinear / curved array is similar to a linear array transducer, except of the shape of the probe and the sector format of the created image.
The better fit to the body, caused by the curved shape with smaller convex contact surface, and the wider field of view further from the transducer face are advantages in abdominal ultrasound.
However, also a convex array is often too large to image the heart when probing between the ribs. Caused by combining a large field of view with smallest array size, phased array transducers are the best choice in cardiac ultrasound.
See also Curved Transducer.
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Ultrasound renal anatomyOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
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Curved TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
A curved or curvilinear array transducer is similar to a linear array except that the image created has a sector-type format. A curvilinear array gives a large footprint and near field with a wide sector. Usually, curved transducers are described by the radius of curvature in mm. The transducer elements control the characteristics and direction of the sound beam.
Curvilinear transducers have a wider field of view from the transducer face. Sector scanners are most useful for cardiac ultrasound examinations where the beam is directed between the ribs to image the heart.
Also called convex transducer.
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Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
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TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. Most transducers are either sensors or actuators. A transducer (also called probe) is a main part of the ultrasound machine. The transducer sends ultrasound waves into the body and receives the echoes produced by the waves when it is placed on or over the body part being imaged.
Ultrasound transducers are made from crystals with piezoelectric properties. This material vibrates at a resonant frequency, when an alternating electric current is applied. The vibration is transmitted into the tissue in short bursts. The speed of transmission within most soft tissues is 1540 m/s, producing a transit time of 6.5 ms/cm. Because the velocity of ultrasound waves is constant, the time taken for the wave to return to the transducer can be used to determine the depth of the object causing the reflection.
The waves will be reflected when they encounter a boundary between two tissues of different density (e.g. soft tissue and bone) and return to the transducer. Conversely, the crystals emit electrical currents when sound or pressure waves hit them (piezoelectric effect). The same crystals can be used to send and receive sound waves; the probe then acts as a receiver, converting mechanical energy back into an electric signal which is used to display an image. A sound absorbing substance eliminates back reflections from the probe itself, and an acoustic lens focuses the emitted sound waves. Then, the received signal gets processed by software to an image which is displayed at a monitor.
Transducer heads may contain one or more crystal elements. In multi-element probes, each crystal has its own circuit. The advantage is that the ultrasound beam can be controlled by changing the timing in which each element gets pulsed. Especially for cardiac ultrasound it is important to steer the beam.
Usually, several different transducer types are available to select the appropriate one for optimal imaging. Probes are formed in many shapes and sizes. The shape of the probe determines its field of view.
Transducers are described in megahertz (MHz) indicating their sound wave frequency. The frequency of emitted sound waves determines how deep the sound beam penetrates and the resolution of the image. Most transducers are only able to emit one frequency because the piezoelectric ceramic or crystals within it have a certain inherent frequency, but multi-frequency probes are also available.
See also Blanking Distance, Damping, Maximum Response Axis, Omnidirectional, and Huygens Principle.
Radiology-tip.comTransmitter
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Testing Diagnostic Ultrasound Probes For Bad CrystalsOpen this link in a new window
Saturday, 19 September 1998   by www.pamia.org    
  News & More:
Ultrasound beamforming and image formation(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
2007   by dukemil.bme.duke.edu    
Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
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SonoSite, Inc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Manufacturers -
 
www.sonosite.com

'SonoSite, Inc. is the worldwide market and technology leader in high performance, hand-carried ultrasound. Through its expertise in ASIC design, SonoSite is able to offer imaging performance typically found in ultrasound systems weighing more than 300 pounds in a system architecture that is approximately the size and weight of a laptop computer and provides a significant price to performance advantage compared to conventional systems. This breakthrough is transforming and expanding the worldwide diagnostic ultrasound market by serving existing clinical markets more efficiently and creating new point-of-care applications where ultrasound was either too cumbersome or too expensive to be used before. With over 15,000 systems sold since 1999, SonoSite products are known for exceptional performance, ease of use and durability.'

'SonoSite began as a division of ATL Ultrasound in 1997 focused on the development of all-digital, handheld ultrasound devices. In February 1995, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Project Administration (DARPA) had awarded to ATL a two-year matching grant to develop a highly portable ultrasound device for use on the battlefield or in natural or man-made disasters to diagnose victims of severe trauma. This program culminated with a prototype in October 1998. ATL spun off SonoSite as a public company on April 6, 1998.'

Ultrasound Related Product Lines:
Ultrasound Systems:
SSD-5000 SSD-3500
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Contact Information:
MAIL SonoSite, Inc.
U.S. Headquarters
21919 30th Drive SE
Bothell, WA 98021-3904
PHONE +1 425 951 1200
(+1 888 482 9449)
FAX +1 425 951 1201
ONLINE www.sonosite.com
Contact Page Contact Us
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