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 'Microbubbles' 
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News  (11)  
 
MicrobubblesInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
Microbubbles filled with air or inert gases are used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging. Compression and rarefaction created by an ultrasound wave insonating a gas-filled microbubble along with the mechanical index of the ultrasonic beam lead to volume pulsations of the bubbles, and it is this change that results in the signal enhancement.
Microbubbles have diameters from 1 µm to 10 µm and a thin flexible or rigid shell composed of albumin, lipid, or polymer confining a gas such as nitrogen, or a perfluorocarbon. These microbubbles can cross the pulmonary capillaries and have a serum half-life of a few minutes. Microbubbles in the 1-10 µm range have their resonance at the frequencies used in diagnostic ultrasound (1–15MHz). Smaller bubbles resonate at higher frequencies. Caused by this coincidence, they are such effective reflectors.
The intrinsic compressibility of microbubbles is approximately 17,000 times more than water, and they are very strong scatterers of ultrasound. Under acoustic pressure the vibrating bubble radius may have a conventional linear response or a harmonic non-linear response. Microbubbles usually increase the Doppler signal amplitude by up to 30 dB.
Radiology-tip.comLow-Osmolar Contrast Media,  Safety of Contrast Agents
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Radiology-tip.comParamagnetic Contrast Agents,  Blood Pool Agents
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• View the news results for 'Microbubbles' (2).


• Related Searches:
    • Ultrasound Contrast Agent Safety
    • Contrast Agent Particles
    • Microbubble Shell
    • Ultrasound Contrast Agents
    • Microbubble Scanner Modification

 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Role of ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in patients with cerebrovascular disease(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
Friday, 1 March 2002   by eurheartjsupp.oupjournals.org    
US Resources  
Ultrasound Guided Interventions - Kidney - Service and Repair - Manufacturers - Pregnancy - Portals
 
AlbunexInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
Albunex and Infoson, used mainly in cardiac evaluations, are first generation one-pass-only contrast agents and have been replaced by the new-generation contrast media. Albunex and Infoson are the same sonicated human serum albumin microbubbles. Infoson is licensed and manufactured in Europe, while Albunex was produced in the USA.
Albunex, an air-filled microbubble with a denatured albumin shell (modified from air-filled albumin microspheres prepared from sonicated 5% human serum albumin), was the first FDA-approved contrast agent, but is no longer in production.
Cardiac shunts and valve regurgitations are often evaluated with Color Doppler Imaging (CDI), which also improved with injections of Albunex, but this agent is pressure-sensitive and does not recirculate. It is effectively a one-pass-only agent, limiting its clinical efficacy.
See also First generation USCA, Echocardiography and Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound.
Drug Information and Specification:
DEVELOPER Mallinckrodt Inc.
INDICATION Contrast sonography and Doppler-echocardiography
APPLICATION Intravenous injection
TYPE Microbubble
SHELL - STABILIZATION Albumin
GAS Air
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
molecular imaging using ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by bjr.birjournals.org    
Detecting and Imaging Microbubble contrast agents with ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
2000   by www.collectionscanada.ca    
US Resources  
Artifacts - Image Quality - Education - UltraSound Physics - Carotid - UltraSound Reimbursement
 
Alliance Pharmaceutical Corp.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Manufacturers -
 
www.allp.htm

California-based research and development company. Alliance Pharmaceutical Corporation. The principal activities of the Company is identifying, designing, and developing novel medical products. The Company is engaged in development of scientific discoveries into medical products and licensing these products to multinational pharmaceutical companies in exchange for fixed payments and royalty or profit sharing payments. The Company has developed three innovative products through initial clinical (human) trials. The products are Oxygent™, Liquivent and Imavist™. The Company's strategy is to identify potential new medical products though its own efforts and scientific collaborations with researchers and clinicians in universities and medical centers. In Dec 2000 the company acquired Molecular Biosystems Inc a developer of intravenous ultrasound contrast agent for the heart.

"September 20, 2001 Alliance Pharmaceutical Corp. announced that it has won a favorable Final Judgment from the United States Patent and Trademark Office's Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences regarding claims in U.S. Patent No. 5,558,854, which is owned by Nycomed Imaging, AS. The Final Judgment determined that claims made in the Nycomed patent with respect to "microbubbles" that contain perfluorohexane filling gas are invalid and are therefore unpatentable."

Ultrasound Related Product Lines:
Contrast Agents:
TRADE NAME FOR SALE FOR SALE /
DEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPMENT
Imagent®

Contact Information:
MAIL Alliance Pharmaceutical Corp.
6175 Lusk Blvd.
San Diego, CA 92121
USA
PHONE +1-858-410-5200
FAX +1-858-410-5161
E-MAIL corpcom@allp.com
ONLINE www.allp.com
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
IMCOR Pharmaceutical Co., Alliance Pharmaceutical Corp., Molecular Biosystems, Inc. and GE Healthcare Ltd., Inc. Enter Into Cross-Licensing Agreement for Ultrasound Contrast PatentsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.prnewswire.com    
Searchterm 'Microbubbles' was also found in the following service: 
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News  (11)  
 
BackscatteringMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
Ultrasound waves are reflected when there is a change in acoustic impedance. The larger the change, the more ultrasound is reflected. Microbubbles have an enormous difference in acoustic impedance as compared to surrounding fluid due to the large differences in density, elasticity and compressibility.
At low acoustic power (mechanical index less than 0.1), the mechanism of ultrasound reflection is that of Rayleigh scattering and the microbubbles may be regarded as point scatterers. The scattering strength of a point scatterer is proportional to the sixth power of the particle radius and to the fourth power of the ultrasound frequency;; the echogenicity of such contrast agent is therefore highly dependent upon particle size and transmit frequency. The backscattered intensity of a group of point scatterers is furthermore directly proportional to the total number of scatterers in the insonified volume. The concentration of the contrast medium is of importance.
See also Backscatter Energy, Cross-section Scattering.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
A brief introduction to ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by dukemil.egr.duke.edu    
  News & More:
Science to Practice Which US Microbubble Contrast Agent Is Best for Gene Therapy?Open this link in a new window
   by radiology.rsna.org    
US Resources  
Services and Supplies - Renal - Prenatal - Probes Transducers - Portable UltraSound -
 
BG1135InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
From Bracco Research S. A., Geneva, Switzerland
BG1135 is a polymer-shelled new ultrasound contrast agent under development. The air-filled microsphere has a rigid, 100 nm thick polymeric shell and a mean diameter of 2.9 mm with 99% less than 8 mm.
The destruction mechanism of BG1135 is unique among microbubbles. The microbubbles of BG1135 appear to acquire a small shell defect, allowing the filling gas to stream out and creating a new gas bubble, but leaving the old shell intact. No significant differences between the diameters of the shells can be measured before and after insonation even though the agent is fragmented.

Drug Information and Specification:
RESEARCH NAME BG1135
DEVELOPER Bracco Diagnostics, Inc.
DEVELOPMENT STAGE Preclinical
APPLICATION Intravenous
TYPE Microbubble
SHELL Polymer
GAS Air
MICROBUBBLE SIZE Mean diameter: 2.9 µm
99% < 8µm
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Optical observation of lipid- and polymer-shelled ultrasound microbubble contrast agentsOpen this link in a new window
   by escholarship.org    
US Resources  
Journals - Cardiac - Patient Information - Movies - Pediatric - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Career
 
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 • Ultrasound Contrast Agent Safety
 • Microbubble Shell
 • Contrast Agent Particles
 • Microbubble Scanner Modification
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