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 'Near Field' 
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Near FieldMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The near field (also called Fresnel zone) is the proximal part of an ultrasound beam. The Fresnel zone is adjacent to the transducer surface and has a converging sound beam profile. A narrow beam shape is maintained in the near field owing to constructive and destructive interference patterns of sound wavelets emitted from the transducer crystal.
The length of the near field is equal to
r2/l = d2/4l
where r is the radius, l is the ultrasound wavelength in the medium of propagation and d the diameter of the piezoelectric crystal.
See also Beam Pattern, and Sonographic Features.
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 Further Reading:
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Physics, instrumentation and basic technique.Open this link in a new window
   by dynamicultrasound.org    
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Ultrasonic Testing Using Phased ArraysOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ndt.net    
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Composite ArrayMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
Composite arrays are combinations of piezoelectric ceramics and polymers that form a new material with different properties. Piezocomposites improve the performance of usual arrays such as the mechanically scanned annular array and the linear phased array.
Piezocomposites reduce the acoustic impedance with a better impedance match with tissue. The result is a reduction of the reverberation level in the near field. Unwanted surface waves propagating laterally over the transducer are suppressed. The composite materials allow to vary the electromechanical coupling constant, and to give better control over the trade-off between sensitivity and bandwidth.
See also Narrow Bandwidth, Dead Zone, Ultrasound Phantom.
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Curved TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
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Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
A curved or curvilinear array transducer is similar to a linear array except that the image created has a sector-type format. A curvilinear array gives a large footprint and near field with a wide sector. Usually, curved transducers are described by the radius of curvature in mm. The transducer elements control the characteristics and direction of the sound beam.
Curvilinear transducers have a wider field of view from the transducer face. Sector scanners are most useful for cardiac ultrasound examinations where the beam is directed between the ribs to image the heart.
Also called convex transducer.
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 Further Reading:
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Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
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Huygens PrincipleMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
Huygens principle states that an expanding sphere of waves behaves as if each point on the wave front were a new source of radiation of the same frequency and phase. The principle explains how a flat ultrasound transducer can transmit a narrow ultrasound beam, which in the near field is confined to the dimensions of the transducer surface.
Spherical wavelets are emitted from numerous point sources on the transducer surface. They interfere to form a narrow, slightly converging beam of ultrasound in the near field. The wavefronts in the beam are nearly parallel. A precondition for this interference is that the transducer surface is much larger than the ultrasound wavelength.
See also Interference Artifact.
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 Further Reading:
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Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
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Linear ProbeInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
A linear probe contains one or more acoustic linear array transducer elements arranged in a line to send pulses of sound into a material. The linear array gives a large probe surface (footprint) and near field. In Doppler mode, a linear probe operates a subset of its elements as a linear phased array and can thus steer the Doppler beam at a selected angle to the imaging beam. This is a popular configuration for peripheral vascular and perivascular scanning.
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Ultrasonic Testing Using Phased ArraysOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ndt.net    
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