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OscillationMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
Oscillation is a rhythmic periodic motion. Microbubbles, for example oscillate at their natural frequency at which they resonate most strongly.
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CavitationMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
Cavitation is any activity of highly compressible transient or stable microbubbles of gas and/or vapour, generated by ultrasonic power in the propagation medium. Cavitation can be described as inertial or non-inertial. Inertial cavitation has the most potential to damage tissue and occurs when a gas-filled cavity grows, during pressure rarefaction of the ultrasound pulse, and contracts, during the compression phase. Collapses of bubbles can generate local high temperatures and pressures. Transient cavitation can cause tissue damage.
The threshold for cavitation is high and does not occur at current levels of diagnostic ultrasound. The introduction of contrast agents leads to the formation of microbubbles that potentially provide gas nuclei for cavitation. The use of contrast agents can lower the threshold at which cavitation occurs.

Types of cavitation:
point Acoustic cavitation - sound in liquid can produce bubbles or cavities containing gas or vapour.
point Stable cavitation - steady microbubble oscillation due to the passage of a sound wave.
point Transient cavitation - short-lived cavitation initiated by the negative pressure of the sound wave.

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Stone fragmentation by ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
August 2004   by www.ias.ac.in    
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Fundamental FrequencyMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
The fundamental frequency is the natural or resonant frequency of a system and the first harmonic of a system's oscillation.
See also Subharmonic Imaging.

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Harmonic ImagingOpen this link in a new window
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HarmonicMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
Harmonic is an oscillation of a system at a frequency that is a simple multiple of its fundamental frequency. The fundamental frequency of a sinusoidal oscillation is called the first harmonic. The second harmonic has a frequency doubled that of the fundamental.
See also Fundamental Imaging, Harmonic Imaging, Subharmonic Imaging and Superharmonic Imaging.

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Harmonic B-Mode ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
Harmonic B-mode imaging takes advantage of the non-linear oscillation of microbubbles. During harmonic imaging, the sound signal is transmitted at a frequency of around 1.5 to 2.0 MHz and received at twice this frequency. The microbubbles also reflect waves with wavelengths different from the transmitted one, the detectors can be set to receive only the latter ones and create only images of the contrast agent.
Using bandpass filters the transmitted frequency is separated from the received signal to get improved visualization of vessels containing ultrasound contrast agents (USCAs). The signal to noise ratio during the presence of microbubbles in tissue is four- to fivefold higher at the harmonic compared with the basic frequency.
Using harmonic B-mode imaging, harmonic frequencies produced by the ultrasound propagation through tissue have to be taken into account. The tissue reflection produces only a small amount harmonic energy compared to USCAs, but has to be removed by background subtraction for quantitative evaluation of myocardial perfusion.
See also Non-linear Propagation.

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