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 'Pulse Repetition Frequency' 
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Pulse Repetition FrequencyMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
(PRF) The pulse repetition frequency is the number of pulses per second. The usual range for echocardiographs is between 200 and 5000 pulses per second. The PRF varies with the type of mode in operation.
See also Q-value.
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Superthreshold Behavior of Ultrasound-Induced Lung Hemorrhage in Adult RatsOpen this link in a new window
2006   by www.jultrasoundmed.org    
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Aliasing ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Intro, 
Artifacts, 
ReductionMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Artifacts -
 
Echoes of deep lying structures within the body do not always come from the latest emitted sound pulse and can produce an aliasing artifact. Aliasing lowers the frequency components when the pulse repetition frequency is less than 2 times the highest frequency of a Doppler signal. This artifact can be problematical at Spectral or Color Doppler examinations.
Aliasing of the data displayed in pulsed wave technology is utilized as a benefit in determining transitions from laminar to turbulent flow.
See also Ultrasound Imaging Modes.
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Duty FactorMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The duty factor is the product of the pulse duration and the pulse repetition frequency (the lapse of time the transducer is actively transmitting sound).
Most transducers are acting as the receiver 99 % of the time with a duty factor of 1.
See also Dwell Time.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
An Introduction to UltrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cis.rit.edu    
  News & More:
Superthreshold Behavior of Ultrasound-Induced Lung Hemorrhage in Adult RatsOpen this link in a new window
2006   by www.jultrasoundmed.org    
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Liver - UltraSound Physics - UltraSound Reimbursement - Safety - Modes - Universities
 
Nyquist LimitMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
According to Shannon's sampling theorem, the sampling frequency should be twice the frequency being sampled. The nyquist frequency is the maximum frequency that can be sampled without aliasing. In ultrasound imaging, it is defined as half of the pulse repetition frequency.
NF = PRF/2 (nyquist frequency = pulse repetition frequency/2)
This is the so-called Nyquist limit. If the velocity of flow exceeds the Nyquist limit, the direction and velocity are inaccurately displayed and appear to change direction. Color flow Doppler capitalizes on this effect. This allows detecting flow disturbances from laminar to turbulent flow.
See also Aliasing Artifact, Repetition Rate, and Sampling Rate.
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Transducer TypesInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
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TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
Transducers can be divided in:
1.) Transducers where the sound wave is transmitted and received by different elements.
2.) Transducers where multiple elements part of the time transmit and part of the time receive sound energy.
The first type of ultrasound transducer is used in detection of blood flow (also called nonimaging transducers). For example, the continuous wave transducer (Pedoff transducer) has two separate elements, where one element is always transmitting while the other element is always receiving.
Probes of the second type are used to image cardiac structures and have the capability to use various Doppler techniques to detect blood flow (also called imaging transducers). For example, continuous wave, pulsed wave, high pulse repetition frequency, color flow, M-mode, and 2D-mode are the various modes that this type of transducer can perform.

Transducers can also be divided in mechanical and electronic or phased scan types.
Mechanical transducers use a combination of single element oscillation, multiple element rotation, or a single element and set of acoustic mirrors to generate the sweeping beam for 2D mode. Caused by the vibration (created as the mirrors rotate or oscillate inside the cover) is this type sometimes called the 'wobbler'. Mechanical transducers are cheaper than electronic transducers.
Different types of electronic or phased array probes can create a linear or rectangular shaped scan plane as well as a sector or pie shaped scan plane. Sector scanners are most useful for cardiac ultrasound examinations where the beam is directed between the ribs to image the heart. A linear array transducer is more useful in abdominal, OB/GYN, and small parts examinations. Electronic transducers are more expensive but they provide dynamic focusing and smaller probe.
See also Rectangular Array Transducer.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
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