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Rectangular Array TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
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TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
The elements of a rectangular array transducer (also called matrix transducer) are arranged in a rectangular pattern. Rectangular arrays with unequal rows (e.g. 3, 5, 7) of transducer elements are in real 2D (two-dimensional), but they are termed 1.5D, because the number of rows is much less than the number of columns. Their main advantage is electronic focusing even in the elevation plane (z-plane).
The transducers that are termed 2D have an equal number of rows and columns. 2D transducers have the potential to provide real-time 3D ultrasound imaging without moving the transducer.
Active matrix array transducers have several elements in the short axis and in addition multiple elements along the long axis. This allows electronic focusing in both axes, resulting in a narrower elevation axis beam width in the near field and far field.
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Array TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
An array transducer is composed of multiple piezoelectric crystal elements arranged in an array. Arrays are transducer assemblies with a row of elements, used to focus the beam.

Types of array transducers:
point Linear array transducer = the arrays are arranged along a line.
point Curvilinear or curved transducer = the arrays are arranged along a convex curve. A curved array is similar to a linear array except that the image created is a sector-type.
point Annular array transducer = the arrays are arranged in concentric circles.
point Rectangular array transducer = the arrays are arranged in a rectangular pattern.
See also Amplitude Shading, Transducer Types, and Transducer Assembly.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
  News & More:
Ultrasound renal anatomyOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
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Linear Array TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
Linear array transducer elements are rectangular and arranged in a line. Linear array probes are described by the radius of width in mm. A linear array transducer can have up to 512 elements spaced over 75-120 mm. The beam produced by such a narrow element will diverge rapidly after the wave travels only a few millimeters. The smaller the face of the transducer, the more divergent is the beam. This would result in poor lateral resolution due to beam divergence and low sensitivity due to the small element size.
In order to overcome this, adjacent elements are pulsed simultaneously (typically 8 to 16; or more in wide-aperture designs). In a subgroup of x elements, the inner elements pulse delayed with respect to the outer elements. The interference of the x small divergent wavelets produces a focused beam. The delay time determines the depth of focus for the transmitted beam and can be changed during scanning.
Linear arrays are usually cheaper than sector scanners but have greater skin contact and therefore make it difficult to reach organs between ribs such as the heart. One-dimensional linear array transducers may have dynamic, electronic focusing providing a narrow ultrasound beam in the image plane. In the z-plane (elevation plane - perpendicular to the image plane) focusing may be provided by an acoustic lens with a fixed focal zone.
Rectangular or matrix transducers with unequal rows of transducer elements are two-dimensional (2D), but they are termed 1.5D, because the number of rows is much less than the number of columns. These transducers provide dynamic, electronic focusing even in the z-plane.
See also Rectangular Array Transducer.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Ultrasound Physics Main differences between Ultrasound and X-rays, Velocity of sound in some Biological MaterialsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.drgdiaz.com    
  News & More:
Ultrasonic Testing Using Phased ArraysOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ndt.net    
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Transducer TypesInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
Transducers can be divided in:
1.) Transducers where the sound wave is transmitted and received by different elements.
2.) Transducers where multiple elements part of the time transmit and part of the time receive sound energy.
The first type of ultrasound transducer is used in detection of blood flow (also called nonimaging transducers). For example, the continuous wave transducer (Pedoff transducer) has two separate elements, where one element is always transmitting while the other element is always receiving.
Probes of the second type are used to image cardiac structures and have the capability to use various Doppler techniques to detect blood flow (also called imaging transducers). For example, continuous wave, pulsed wave, high pulse repetition frequency, color flow, M-mode, and 2D-mode are the various modes that this type of transducer can perform.

Transducers can also be divided in mechanical and electronic or phased scan types.
Mechanical transducers use a combination of single element oscillation, multiple element rotation, or a single element and set of acoustic mirrors to generate the sweeping beam for 2D mode. Caused by the vibration (created as the mirrors rotate or oscillate inside the cover) is this type sometimes called the 'wobbler'. Mechanical transducers are cheaper than electronic transducers.
Different types of electronic or phased array probes can create a linear or rectangular shaped scan plane as well as a sector or pie shaped scan plane. Sector scanners are most useful for cardiac ultrasound examinations where the beam is directed between the ribs to image the heart. A linear array transducer is more useful in abdominal, OB/GYN, and small parts examinations. Electronic transducers are more expensive but they provide dynamic focusing and smaller probe.
See also Rectangular Array Transducer.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
US Resources  
4d UltraSound - Thyroid - Education pool - Ultrasound Therapy - Kidney - Rental
 
ArrayMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
Arrays are spatial arrangements of transducers or transducer elements.
See also Composite Array.

Array types used in ultrasound imaging:
point annular array - elements arranged in concentric circles;
point curved array - elements arranged along a convex curve;
point linear array - elements are arranged along a line;
point rectangular array - elements arranged in a rectangular pattern.
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Ultrasonic Testing Using Phased ArraysOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ndt.net    
US Resources  
Abdominal - Non-English - Contrast Agents - Portable UltraSound - Distributors - RIS
 
Related Searches:
 • Linear Probe
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 • Linear Array Transducer
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