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SoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
Sound and ultrasound waves consist of a mechanical disturbance of a medium such as air. The disturbance passes through the medium at a fixed speed causing vibration. The rate at which the particles vibrate is the frequency, measured in cycles per second or Hertz (Hz).
The pressure of sound is reported on a logarithmic scale called sound-pressure level, expressed in decibel (dB) referenced to the weakest audible 1 000 Hz sound pressure of 2´10-5 Pascal (20 mP). Sound level meters contain filters that simulate the ear’s frequency response. The most commonly used filter provides what is called 'A' weighting, with the letter 'A' appended to the dB units, i.e. dBA.
Sound becomes inaudible to the human ear above about 20 kHz and is then known as ultrasound. Diagnostic imaging uses much higher frequencies, in the order of MHz.
See also Spatial Peak Intensity.

Sound frequencies:
list_point infrasound - 0 to 20 Hz;
list_point audible sound - 20 Hz to 20 KHz;
list_point ultrasound - greater than 20 KHz;
list_point medical ultrasound - 2.5 MHz to 15 MHz.
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• View the news results for 'Sound' (211).


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    • Ultrasound
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Ultrasound Physics Main differences between Ultrasound and X-rays, Velocity of sound in some Biological MaterialsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.drgdiaz.com    
  News & More:
Ultrasound in diagnostic and therapyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.anst.uu.se    
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Sound BeamMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
(short for ultrasound beam) The sound beam is the confined, directional beam of ultrasound traveling as a longitudinal wave from the transducer face into the propagation medium. The near field and the far field are two separate regions along the beam. Sound beams are either steered mechanically or electrically. Both rapidly sweep sound waves through tissues.
See also Sheer Wave, Beam Vessel Angle, Beam Steering, and Huygens Principle.
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Ultrasonic Testing Using Phased ArraysOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ndt.net    
US Resources  
Obstetric - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Schools - Journals - Vascular - Doppler UltraSound - Directories
 
UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
(US) Ultrasound is very high frequency sound above about 20,000 Hertz. Any frequency above the capabilities of the human ear is referred to as ultrasound.
Diagnostic ultrasound imaging uses much higher frequencies, in the order of megahertz. The frequencies present in usual sonograms can be anywhere between 2 and 13 MHz. The sound beam produce a single focused arc-shaped sound wave from the sum of all the individual pulses emitted by the transducer.
See also Medical Imaging.
Radiology-tip.comGamma Ray
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Radiology-tip.comMagnetic Resonance Imaging MRI
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• View the news results for 'Ultrasound' (211).



 Further Reading:
  Basics:
UltrasoundOpen this link in a new window
Thursday, 20 October 2005   by en.wikipedia.org    
An Introduction to UltrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cis.rit.edu    
  News & More:
Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
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3D UltrasoundInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - 3d UltraSound -
 
In 3D ultrasound (US) several 2D images are acquired by moving the probe across the body surface or rotating inserted probes. 3D-mode uses the same basic concept of a 2D ultrasound but rather than take the image from a single angle, the sonographer takes a volume image. The volume image that is displayed on the screen is a software rendering of all of the detected soft-tissue combined by specialized computer software to form three-dimensional images.
The 3D volume rendering technique (VR) does not rely on segmentation (segmentation techniques are difficult to apply to ultrasound pictures) and makes it possible to obtain clear 3D ultrasound images for clinical diagnosis. A 3D ultrasound produces a still image. Diagnostic US systems with 3D display functions and linear array probes are mainly used for obstetric and abdominal applications. The combination of contrast agents, harmonic imaging and power Doppler greatly improves 3D US reconstructions.

3D imaging shows a better look at the organ being examined and is used for:
list_point Detection of abnormal fetus development, e.g. of the face and limbs.
list_point Visualization of e.g. the colon and rectum.
list_point Detection of cancerous and benign tumors, e.g. tumors of the prostate gland, and breast lesions.
list_point Pictures of blood flow in various organs or a fetus.
Fusion 3D imaging methods for generating compound images from two sets of ultrasound images (B-mode and Doppler images) enable the observation of the structural relationships between lesions and their associated blood vessels in three dimensions (maximum intensity projection).
Radiology-tip.comVirtual Colonoscopy
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Radiology-tip.comVolumetric Imaging
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• View the news results for '3D Ultrasound' (2).



 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
  News & More:
Ultrasound: Weighing the Propaganda Against the FactsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.midwiferytoday.com    
New technology makes 3-D imaging quicker, easierOpen this link in a new window
Sunday, 17 February 2008   by www.eurekalert.org    
Searchterm 'Sound' was also found in the following services: 
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4D UltrasoundInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
As far as ultrasound is concerned, 4D ultrasound (also referred to as live 3D ultrasound or 4B-mode) is the latest ultrasound technology - the fourth dimension means length, width, and depth over time. 4D Ultrasound takes 3D ultrasound images and adds the element of time to the progress so that a moving three-dimensional image is seen on the monitor. A 4D scan takes the same amounts of time as a 2D or 3D scan; the difference is the ultrasound equipment being used. One advantage of a 4D fetal ultrasound to a 2D-mode is that parents can see how their baby will generally look like. However, there are different opinions over the medical advantages.
To scan a 3D ultrasound image, the probe is swept over the maternal abdomen. A computer takes multiple images and renders the 3D picture. With 4D imaging, the computer takes the images as multiple pictures while the probe is hold still and a 3D image is simultaneously rendered in real time on a monitor.
In most cases, the standard 2D ultrasound is taken, and then the 3D/4D scan capability is added if an abnormality is detected or suspected. The 3D/4D sonogram is then focused on a specific area, to provide the details needed to assess and diagnose a suspected problem. A quick 4D scan of the face of the fetus may be performed at the end of a routine exam, providing the parents with a photo.
Radiology-tip.comFluoroscopy
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Radiology-tip.comTemporal Resolution
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Impulse Imaging 4D Imaging : 4D Ultrasound, 4D Radar, 4D Sonar, ... Real Time 3D Imaging using Ellipsoidal BackprojectionOpen this link in a new window
2001   by www.impulseimaging.net    
  News & More:
Ultrasound: Weighing the Propaganda Against the FactsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.midwiferytoday.com    
US Resources  
Heart - Research Labs - Directories - Endoscopic - Ultrasound Guided Interventions - UltraSound Reimbursement
 
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