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 'Thermal Index' 
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Thermal IndexMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Safety -
 
(TI) The definition of the thermal index is the ratio of the total acoustic power to that required raising a maximum temperature increase of 1°C under defined assumptions. A thermal index of 1 indicates the acoustic power achieving a temperature increase of 1°C. A thermal index of 2 has the doubled power but would not necessarily indicate a peak temperature rise of 2°C. The temperature rise is dependent on tissue type and is particularly dependent on the presence of bone.
Classifications of thermal indices:
point TIS - thermal index soft tissue;
point TIB - thermal index bone - bone at/near the focus;
point TIC - thermal index cranial bone - bone at the surface.
For fetal ultrasound, the highest temperature increase would be expected occurring at bone. Therefore, TIB gives the worst-case conditions. If the ultrasound system can exceed an index of 1, the mechanical index and thermal index must be displayed. The displayed indices are based on the manufacturer’s data.
See also Cranial Bone Thermal Index, Bone Thermal Index, Soft Tissue Thermal Index.
Radiology-tip.comThermal Equilibrium,  Laser Induced Thermo Therapy
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Guidelines for the Safe Use of Diagnostic Ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by folk.ntnu.no    
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Placental insufficiency and fetal heart: Doppler ultrasonographic and biochemical markers of fetal cardiac dysfunctionOpen this link in a new window
   by herkules.oulu.fi    
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Bone Thermal IndexMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Safety -
 
(TIB) The bone thermal index is an exposure model for the case that the ultrasound beam passes through soft tissue and a focal region is in the immediate vicinity of bone.
The longitudinal waves of ultrasound are reflected and transformed into transverse waves, creating a heating effect. Muscle and bone absorb more energy at interfaces with other heterogeneous tissues.
See also Sheer Wave.
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Soft Tissue Thermal IndexMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Safety -
 
(TIS) The bone thermal index is an exposure model for the case that the ultrasound beam heats primarily soft tissue.
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Cranial Bone Thermal IndexMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Safety -
 
(TIC) The cranial bone thermal index is an exposure model for the case that the ultrasound beam passes through bone near the beam entrance into the body.
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Absorbed DoseMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
In physics, the absorbed dose is the ultrasonic power absorbed per unit of mass of an object, and is measured in watts per kilogram (W/kg). The absorption increases with ultrasound intensity and frequency.
The thermal index describes the potential for heating of the patient's tissue due to the application of energy.
See also Thermal Effect, Ultrasound Safety, Ultrasound Regulations.
Radiology-tip.comRadiation Absorbed Dose
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Radiology-tip.comAbsorbed Dose
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Physics Tutorial: Ultrasound PhysicsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.physics247.com    
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