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 'Ultrasound Radiation Force' 
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Result : Searchterm 'Ultrasound Radiation Force' found in 1 term [] and 4 definitions [])
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Obstetric - Musculoskeletal and Joint - Calculation - Service and Repair - Pelvic - Non-English
 
Ultrasound Radiation ForceMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The traveling ultrasonic wave causes a low-level ultrasound radiation force when this energy is absorbed in tissues (absorbed dose). This force produces a pressure in the direction of the beam and away from the transducer. It should not be confused with the oscillatory pressure of the ultrasound wave itself. The pressure that results and the pressure gradient across the beam are very low, even for intensities at the higher end of the range of diagnostic ultrasound. Mechanical effects like radiation forces lead to stress at tissue interfaces. The effect of the force is manifest in volumes of fluid where streaming can occur with motion within the fluid. The fluid velocities which result are low and are unlikely to cause damage.
The effects of ultrasound radiation force (also called Bjerknes Forces) were first reported in 1906 by C. A. and V. F. K. Bjerknes, when they observed the attraction and repulsion of air bubbles in a sound field.
While incompressible objects do experience radiation forces, compressible objects driven at their resonant frequency experience far larger forces and can be observably displaced by low-amplitude ultrasound waves. A microbubble driven near its resonance frequency experiences a large net radiation force in the direction of ultrasound wave propagation. Ultrasound pulses of many cycles can deflect resonant microbubbles over distances on the order of millimeters.
In addition to primary radiation force, which acts in the direction of acoustic wave propagation, a secondary radiation force for which each individual bubble is a source and receptor causes the microspheres to attract or repel each other. The result of this secondary force is that a much larger concentration of microbubbles collects along a vessel wall than might otherwise occur.
See also Acoustically Active Lipospheres.
Radiology-tip.comIonizing Radiation
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Radiation-Force Assisted Targeting Facilitates Ultrasonic Molecular ImagingOpen this link in a new window
Sunday, 4 July 2004   by www.bme.ucdavis.edu    
A Method for Radiation-Force Localized DrugDelivery Using Gas-Filled Lipospheres(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
Wednesday, 7 July 2004   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
US Resources  
Directories - General - Vascular - Ultrasound Therapy - Rental - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Career
 
Acoustically Active LipospheresMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
(AALs) Acoustically active lipospheres and ultrasound are under development to deliver bioactive molecules to the vascular endothelium. The AALs are similar to both ultrasound contrast agents and drug-delivering liposomes. They can carry bioactive substances using biologically inert shells and deliver those substances when disrupted by ultrasound.
The lipospheres consist of a small gas microbubble surrounded by a thick oil shell and are enclosed by an outermost lipid layer. The gas bubble contained in these vehicles makes them acoustically active, similar to ultrasound contrast agents. Acoustically active lipospheres can be nondestructively deflected using ultrasound radiation force, and fragmented with high intensity ultrasound pulses. Their lipid-oil complex can carry bioactive substances at high concentrations. An optimized sequence of ultrasound pulses can deflect the AALs toward a vessel wall then disrupt them, painting their contents across the vascular endothelium.
See also Filling Gas, and MRX 115.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
A Method for Radiation-Force Localized DrugDelivery Using Gas-Filled Lipospheres(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
Wednesday, 7 July 2004   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
  News & More:
Radiation-Force Assisted Targeting Facilitates Ultrasonic Molecular ImagingOpen this link in a new window
Sunday, 4 July 2004   by www.bme.ucdavis.edu    
Bio-effects of ultrasound contrast agents in daily clinical practice: fact or fiction?(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
Monday, 30 April 2007   by eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org    
US Resources  
Ultrasound Therapy - Universities - Resources pool - Journals - Prenatal - Carotid
 
PowerMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
Power in ultrasound describes the energy generated by a wave or in a signal per unit of time. The power is measured in watts (W) and is proportional to the square of the amplitude.
See also Spatial Average Intensity, Ultrasound Radiation Force and Time Average Intensity.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
An Introduction to UltrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cis.rit.edu    
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Portals - Breast - Thyroid - Obstetric - Examinations - Gall Bladder
 
Thermal EffectMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The thermal effect of ultrasound is caused by absorption of the ultrasound beam energy. As the ultrasound waves are absorbed, their energy is converted into heat. The higher the frequency, the greater the absorbed dose, converted to heat according the equation: f = 1/T where T is the period as in simple harmonic motion. Ultrasound is a mechanical energy in which a pressure wave travels through tissue. Heat is produced at the transducer surface and also tissue in the depth can be heated as ultrasound is absorbed.
The thermal effect is highest in tissue with a high absorption coefficient, particularly in bone, and is low where there is little absorption. The temperature rise is also dependent on the thermal characteristics of the tissue (conduction of heat and perfusion), the ultrasound intensity and the length of examination time. The intensity is also dependent on the power output and the position of the tissue in the beam profile. The intensity at a particular point can be changed by many of the operator controls, for example power output, mode (B-mode, color flow, spectral Doppler), scan depth, focus, zoom and area of color flow imaging. The transducer face and tissue in contact with the transducer can be heated.
See also Thermal Units Per Hour and Ultrasound Radiation Force.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Diagnostic Ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by folk.ntnu.no    
US Resources  
Pregnancy - Education pool - Resources pool - UltraSound Reimbursement - Gall Bladder - Image Libraries
 
Ultrasound SafetyMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Safety -
 
The main advantage of ultrasound is that certain structures can be observed without using radiation. However, ultrasound is energy and there are ultrasound safety regulations, because two bioeffects of ultrasound are heat and cavitation. Ultrasound is a mechanical energy in which a pressure wave travels through tissue. Reflection and scattering back to the transducer are used to form the image. As sound energy is transmitted through the tissue, some energy is reflected and some power is absorbed.
Possible physical effects with ultrasound:
point Thermal effects of ultrasound, because tissues or water absorb the ultrasound energy with increase in temperature.
point Cavitation is the formation, growth, and dynamic behavior of gas bubbles (e.g. microbubbles used as contrast agents) at high negative pressure. This dissolved gases come out of solution due to local heat caused by sound energy. This has been determined harmful at the level of the medical usage.
point Mechanical effects of ultrasound include ultrasound radiation force and acoustic streaming.
The ultrasound safety is based on two indices, the mechanical index (MI) and the thermal index (TI). The WFUMB guidelines state that ultrasound that produces temperature rises of less than 1.5°C may be used without reservation. They also state that ultrasonic exposure causing temperature rises of greater than 4°C for over 5 min should be considered potentially hazardous. This leaves a wide range of temperature increases which are within the capability of diagnostic ultrasound equipment to produce and for which no time limits are recommended. However, it has not been determined that medical ultrasound causes any adverse reaction or deleterious effect.
The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine states that as of 1982, no independently confirmed significant biologic effects had been observed in mammalian tissue below (medical usage) 100mW/cm2.
See also Ultrasound Regulations and Ultrasound Radiation Force.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
International guidelines and regulations for the safe use of diagnostic ultrasound in medicine(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.radiologymalaysia.org    
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Diagnostic Ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by folk.ntnu.no    
Ultrasound in diagnostic and therapyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.anst.uu.se    
  News & More:
Ultrasound: Weighing the Propaganda Against the FactsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.midwiferytoday.com    
US Resources  
RIS - Distributors - Pelvic - Universities - Hospitals - Image Quality
 
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