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 'Ultrasound Regulations' 
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Pediatric - Journals - Image Quality - Used and Refurbished UltraSound Equipment - Online Books - 3d UltraSound
 
Ultrasound RegulationsMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Safety -
 
Regulations governing the output of diagnostic ultrasound have been largely set by the USA’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA), although the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is currently in the process of setting internationally agreed standards.
The relevant national societies for ultrasound users (e.g. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM), British Medical Ultrasound Society (BMUS)) usually have safety committees who offer advice on the safe use of ultrasound. In 1992, the AIUM, in conjunction with the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) developed the Output Display Standard (ODS), including the thermal index and mechanical index which have been incorporated in the FDA’s new regulations.
Within Europe, the Federation of Societies of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) also addresses safety and has produced safety guidelines (through the European Committee for Ultrasound Radiation Safety). The World Federation (WFUMB) held safety symposia in 1991 (on thermal issues) and 1996 (thermal and non-thermal issues), at which recommendations were proffered.
The FDA ultrasound safety regulations from 1993 combine an overall limit of spatial peak time averaged intensity (I-SPTA) of 720 mW/cm2 for all equipment. A system of output displays allows users to employ effective and judicious levels of ultrasound appropriate to the examination. The output display is based on two indices, the mechanical index (MI) and the thermal index (TI).
See also ALARA Principle, and Radiological Society of North America.
Radiology-tip.comAdministrative Dose Guidelines
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Radiology-tip.comLegal Requirements
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• Related Searches:
    • Thermal Index
    • Mechanical Index
    • Ultrasound Safety
    • Ultrasound Radiation Force
    • Power

 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Diagnostic Ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by folk.ntnu.no    
US Resources  
Portals - Heart - Intravascular - Ultrasound Therapy - Gynecology - Non-English
 
Absorbed DoseMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
In physics, the absorbed dose is the ultrasonic power absorbed per unit of mass of an object, and is measured in watts per kilogram (W/kg). The absorption increases with ultrasound intensity and frequency.
The thermal index describes the potential for heating of the patient's tissue due to the application of energy.
See also Thermal Effect, Ultrasound Safety, Ultrasound Regulations.
Radiology-tip.comRadiation Absorbed Dose
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Radiology-tip.comAbsorbed Dose
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Physics Tutorial: Ultrasound PhysicsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.physics247.com    
US Resources  
Jobs - Developers - Portable UltraSound - Software - Calculation - Obstetric
 
Breast UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Breast -
 
Breast ultrasound (sonography or ultrasonography) it is an important tool in the characterization of breast lesions, detected with mammography or clinical breast examination. However, a breast sonogram is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a screening tool for breast cancer and is used additional to a mammogram.
Ultrasound is useful in guiding needles for fine needle aspiration and core biopsies. Breast ultrasound has optimal contrast resolution, but it lacks the spatial resolution of conventional mammography and cannot provide as much detail as a mammogram image. In addition, ultrasound is unable to show tiny calcium deposits (microcalcifications) that are often early indications of breast cancer.
See also Biopsy, Interventional Ultrasound, Ultrasound Safety, Side Effect and Ultrasound Regulations.
Radiology-tip.comMammography
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Radiology-tip.comBreast MRI
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• View the news results for 'Breast Ultrasound' (6).



 Further Reading:
  Basics:
ultrasound characteristics of breast cancerOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
  News & More:
Path from ultrasound guided biopsy on 18 Dec 03 pendingOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
ultrasound-guided aspiration of breast cystOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
US Resources  
Equipment and Parts - RIS - Carotid - Renal - Manufacturers - Resources
 
Coded ExcitationMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
Increasing the frequency of the transmitted power improves the image quality of ultrasound, but the improvement in resolution results in a decreased signal to noise ratio (SNR). Higher acoustic power levels can prevent the loss in SNR, but among other reasons, ultrasound regulations limit this to avoid heating or cavitation.
Coded excitation increase the signal to noise ratio without the loss of resolution by using coded waveforms. Coded excitation allows transmitting a long wide-band pulse with more acoustic power and high penetration of the sound beam.
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  News & More:
Coded Pulse Excitation for Ultrasonic Strain Imaging(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
Wednesday, 2 February 2005   by ultrasonics.bioen.uiuc.edu    
US Resources  
RIS - Veterinary UltraSound - Endoscopic - Movies - Musculoskeletal and Joint - Ultrasound Guided Interventions
 
Fetal UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Fetal -
 
The FDA ultrasound regulations allow an eight-fold increase in ultrasound intensity to be used in fetal ultrasound examinations. They place considerably responsibility on the user to understand the output measurements, the mechanical index (MI), the thermal index (TI) and to use them in their scanning. The primary safety concern in prenatal diagnostic imaging is temperature rise. It is known that hyperthermia is teratogenic. The efforts of investigators have concentrated on defining the temperature increases and exposure times which may give rise to biological effects and on determining the ultrasound levels which might, in turn, lead to those temperature rises.
In fetal ultrasound, the highest temperature increase would be expected to occur at bone and the thermal index with bone at/near the focus (TIB) would give the ‘worst case’ conditions. The mechanical index and thermal index must be displayed if the ultrasound system is capable of exceeding an index of 1. The displayed indices are based on the manufacturer’s experimental and modeled data. However, an independent study has demonstrated significant discrepancies over declared spatial peak time averaged intensity (I-SPTA) output of up to 400%.
See also ALARA Principle, Pregnancy Ultrasound and Doppler Fluximetry in Pregnancy.
Radiology-tip.comRadiation Safety
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Radiology-tip.comFetal MRI
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• View the news results for 'Fetal Ultrasound' (3).



 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Pelvic ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by www.surgeryencyclopedia.com    
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Diagnostic Ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by folk.ntnu.no    
US Resources  
Patient Information - Software - Examinations - Education pool - Liver - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Schools
 
Related Searches:
 • Ultrasonic Power
 • Mechanical Index
 • Ultrasound Safety
 • Thermal Index
 • Ultrasound Radiation Force
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