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Medical ImagingMRI Resource Directory:<br> - History of UltraSound -
 
The definition of imaging is the visual representation of an object. Medical imaging began after the discovery of x-rays by Konrad Roentgen 1896. The first fifty years of radiological imaging, pictures have been created by focusing x-rays on the examined body part and direct depiction onto a single piece of film inside a special cassette. The next development involved the use of fluorescent screens and special glasses to see x-ray images in real time.
A major development was the application of contrast agents for a better image contrast and organ visualization. In the 1950s, first nuclear medicine studies showed the up-take of very low-level radioactive chemicals in organs, using special gamma cameras. This medical imaging technology allows information of biologic processes in vivo. Today, PET and SPECT play an important role in both clinical research and diagnosis of biochemical and physiologic processes. In 1955, the first x-ray image intensifier allowed the pick up and display of x-ray movies.
In the 1960s, the principals of sonar were applied to diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonic waves generated by a quartz crystal are reflected at the interfaces between different tissues, received by the ultrasound machine, and turned into pictures with the use of computers and reconstruction software. Ultrasound has been imported into practically every area of medicine as an important diagnostic tool, and there are great opportunities for its further development. Looking into the future, the grand challenges include targeted contrast imaging, real-time 3D or 4D ultrasound, and molecular imaging. The earliest use of ultrasound contrast agents (USCA) was in 1968.
Digital imaging techniques were implemented in the 1970s into conventional fluoroscopic image intensifier and by Godfrey Hounsfield with the first computed tomography. Digital images are electronic snapshots sampled and mapped as a grid of dots or pixels. The introduction of x-ray CT revolutionised medical imaging with cross sectional images of the human body and high contrast between different types of soft tissue. These developments were made possible by analog to digital converters and computers. The multislice spiral CT technology has expands the clinical applications dramatically.
The first MRI devices were tested on clinical patients in 1980. With technological improvements including higher field strength, more open MRI magnets, faster gradient systems, and novel data-acquisition techniques, MRI is a real-time interactive imaging modality that provides both detailed structural and functional information of the body.
Today, imaging in medicine has advanced to a stage that was inconceivable 100 years ago, with growing medical imaging modalities:
X-ray projection imaging
Fluoroscopy
Computed tomography (CT / CAT)
Ultrasound (US)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
Positron emission tomography (PET)
Magnetic source imaging (MSI)
All this type of scans are an integral part of modern healthcare. Because of the rapid development of digital imaging modalities, the increasing need for an efficient management leads to the widening of radiology information systems (RIS) and archival of images in digital form in Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). In telemedicine, medical images of MRI scans, x-ray examinations, CT scans and ultrasound pictures are transmitted in real time.
See also History of Ultrasound Contrast Agents, and History of Ultrasound.
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• Related Searches:
    • Venous Ultrasound
    • Ultrasound Imaging
    • History of Ultrasound
    • Echo
    • Doppler Techniques

 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
US Resources  
UltraSound Technician and Technologist Career - Corporations - Image Libraries - Fetal - Cardiac - Research Labs
 
Harmonic ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
Harmonic imaging relies on detection of harmonics of the transmitted frequency produced by bubble oscillation. This method is widely available on ultrasound scanners and uses the same array transducers as conventional imaging. A major limitation of the use of ultrasound contrast agents is the problem that signals from the microbubbles are mixed with those from tissue. Echoes from solid tissue and red blood cells are suppressed by harmonic imaging.
In harmonic mode, the system transmits at one frequency, but is tuned to receive echoes preferentially at double that frequency, and the second harmonic echoes from the place of the bubble. Typically, the transmit frequency lies between 1.5 and 3 MHz and the receive frequency is selected by means of a bandpass filter whose center frequency lies between 3 and 6 MHz.
Color Doppler and real-time harmonic spectral Doppler modes have also been implemented and show a level of tissue motion suppression not available in conventional modes.
See also Harmonic B-Mode Imaging, and Harmonic Power Doppler.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Harmonic ImagingOpen this link in a new window
   by www.imasonic.com    
  News & More:
Combination of contrast with stress echocardiography: A practical guide to methods and interpretationOpen this link in a new window
2004   by www.cardiovascularultrasound.com    
US Resources  
Carotid - Corporations - Devices Machines Scanners Systems - History of UltraSound - Doppler UltraSound - Research Labs
 
Color Flow ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
(CFI) Color flow imaging is based on pulsed ultrasound Doppler technology. With this technique multiple sample volumes among multiple planes are detected and a color map for direction and velocity flow data is displayed.
Common mapping formats are BART (Blue Away, Red Towards) or RABT (Red Away, Blue Towards). Enhanced or variance flow maps show saturations and intensities that indicate higher velocities and turbulence or acceleration. Some maps utilize a third color (green) to indicate accelerating velocities and turbulence.
Color flow Doppler imaging is not as precise as conventional Doppler and is best used to scan a larger area and then use other Doppler modes to obtain more precise data.
See also Color Amplitude Imaging, Color Priority, and Color Saturation.
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Non-Linear ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
Non-linear imaging is used to detect primary non-linear components of the received echo. Non-linear methods like harmonic imaging and pulse inversion imaging are designed to detect ultrasound contrast agents.
See also Contrast Pulse Sequencing, and Power Modulation.
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US Resources  
Probes Transducers - Equipment and Parts - DICOM - Vascular - Education - Ultrasound Therapy
 
Ultrasound ImagingMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
(US) Also called echography, sonography, ultrasonography, echotomography, ultrasonic tomography.
Ultrasonic waves generated by a quartz crystal, cause mechanical perturbation of an elastic medium with rarefaction and compression of the medium particles. These waves are reflected at the interfaces between different tissues due to differences in the mechanical properties of the tissues. The transmission and reflection of these high-frequency waves are displayed with different types of ultrasound modes.
Using the wave propagation speed in tissues, the time of reflection information can be converted into distance of reflection information. The higher the frequency used in medical ultrasound imaging, the better the image resolution. With higher frequencies, the absorption of the sound beam by the medium is also higher and the beam cannot penetrate so far.
Higher frequencies, for example 7.5 MHz are used to provide good detail of superficial organs such as the thyroid gland and the breast. Lower frequencies, for example 3.5 MHz are used for examinations of the abdomen.
The advantages of ultrasound in medical imaging are:
list_point The procedure is noninvasive.
list_point Ultrasound is safe with no potential risks.
list_point It is easy available and relatively less expensive.
Diagnostic ultrasound imaging is generally a safe technique with no adverse effects. Since ultrasound is so widely used in pregnancy and in pediatric imaging, it is essential for all practitioners to ensure that its use remains safe. Ultrasound causes mechanical and thermal effects in tissue which are increased as the output power is increased.
There has been a general trend towards increased output with the introduction of color flow imaging, more use of pulsed spectral Doppler and higher demands on B-mode imaging. In response to these increasings, recommendations for the safe use of ultrasound have been issued. In addition, recent ultrasound safety regulations have changed to more responsibility of the operator to ensure that ultrasound is used safely.
See also Skinline, Pregnancy Ultrasound, Obstetric and Gynecologic Ultrasound, Musculoskeletal and Joint Ultrasound, and Prostate Ultrasound.
Radiology-tip.comDigital Radiography
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Ultrasound Physics Main differences between Ultrasound and X-rays, Velocity of sound in some Biological MaterialsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.drgdiaz.com    
  News & More:
ultrasound characteristics of breast cancerOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
Ultrasound anatomy of the neckOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
US Resources  
Obstetric - Pregnancy - Education - Ultrasound Guided Interventions - Devices Machines Scanners Systems - UltraSound Training Courses
 
Related Searches:
 • Interventional Ultrasound
 • Doppler Techniques
 • History of Ultrasound
 • Echo
 • Ultrasound Therapy
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