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Transducer Pulse ControlMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
The operator (sonographer) sets and changes the frequency and duration of the ultrasound pulses, as well as the scan mode of the machine with the transducer pulse control. The commands from the operator are translated into changing electric currents that are applied to the piezoelectric crystals in the transducer probe.
See also Blanking Distance.
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Rectangular Array TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
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TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
The elements of a rectangular array transducer (also called matrix transducer) are arranged in a rectangular pattern. Rectangular arrays with unequal rows (e.g. 3, 5, 7) of transducer elements are in real 2D (two-dimensional), but they are termed 1.5D, because the number of rows is much less than the number of columns. Their main advantage is electronic focusing even in the elevation plane (z-plane).
The transducers that are termed 2D have an equal number of rows and columns. 2D transducers have the potential to provide real-time 3D ultrasound imaging without moving the transducer.
Active matrix array transducers have several elements in the short axis and in addition multiple elements along the long axis. This allows electronic focusing in both axes, resulting in a narrower elevation axis beam width in the near field and far field.
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Dual Frequency Phased Array TransducerInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
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TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
Dual frequency phased array transducers allow performing third or fourth harmonic imaging. This array design contains two different types of elements arranged in an interleaved pattern (odd and even elements). The elements can work individually and at a distinct frequency enabling separate transmission and receiving modes.
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Harmonic ImagingOpen this link in a new window
   by www.imasonic.com    
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Acoustic LensMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The acoustic lens is placed at the time the transducer is manufactured and cannot be changed. The acoustic lens is generally focused in the mid field rather than the near or far fields. The exact focal length varies with transducer frequency, but is generally in the range of 4-6 cm for a 5 MHz curved linear probe and 7-9 cm for a 3.5 MHz curved transducer.
Placing the elevation plane (z-plane) focal zone of the acoustic lens in the very near or far field would improve the beam width at precisely those depths. However, this would degrade the beam width to a much greater and unacceptable degree at all other depths.
There are some chemicals in ultrasound couplants that can degrade the acoustic lens, destroy bonding, or change the acoustic properties of the lens. Problematic chemicals include mineral oil, silicone oil, alcohol, surfactants, and fragrances. Fragrance can affect the transducer's acoustic lens or face material by absorption over time into elastomer and plastic materials, thus changing the material's weight, size, density, and acoustic impedance. Surfactants can degrade the bond between the lens and the piezoelectric elements and contribute to the accelerated degeneration of the lens.
See also Retrolenticular Afterglow.
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INTRODUCTIONOpen this link in a new window
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Sound-field modification with acoustic lenses for high-intensity focused ultrasound therapyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
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Acoustic WindowMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The acoustic window or field is the area defined by the pathway of the ultrasound beam between the transducer and the acoustic reflector. The sound reflection to skin boundary should be minimized with an ultrasound gel where this gel acts as an acoustic window through which the image is seen.
Acoustic window refers also to the optimal placing of the transducers so that the areas of interest are clearly imaged.
See also Transforaminal Window, Transcranial Window, Transorbital Window and Transtemporal Window.
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